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Unit–i: molecUlar SpectroScopy
Introduction to Electromagnetic Radiations, Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiations with
Molecules, Various Types of Molecular Spectra.
Rotational Spectroscopy (Microwave Spectroscopy) : Rotation Axis, Moment of Inertia,
Classification of Molecules (Based on Moment of Inertia), Rotational Energies, Selection
Rules (No Derivation), Determination of Bond Length of Rigid Diatomic Molecules Eg: HCl.
Infra Red Spectroscopy : Energy Levels of Simple Harmonic Oscillator, Molecular Vibration
Spectrum, Selection Rules. Determination of Force Constant (Problems). Qualitative
Relation of Force Constant to Bond Energies. Anharmonic Motion of Real Molecules and
Energy Levels. Modes of Vibrations in Polyatomic Molecules. Characteristic Absorption
Bands of Various Functional Groups. Finger Print Nature of Infrared Spectrum.
Electronic Spectroscopy : Bonding and Antibonding Molecular Orbitals, Electronic
Energy Levels of Molecules (s, p, n), Types of Electronic Transitions : s-s*, n-s*, n-p*,
p-p* with Suitable Examples. Selection Rules, Terminology of Chromophore, Auxochrome,
Bathochromic and Hypsochromic Shifts. Absorption Characteristics of Chromophones:
Diene, Enone and Aromatic Chromophores. Representation of UV-Visible Spectra. General
Features of Absorption - Spectroscopy, Transmittance, Absorbance, and Molar Asbsorptivity.
Beer Lambert’s Law and its Limitations.
Unit–ii: nmr and maSS Spectrometry
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy : Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance,
Equivalent and Non-equivalent Protons, Position of Signals. Chemical Shift, Factors
Affecting Chemical Shifts, NMR Splitting of Signals - Spin-spin Coupling, Representation of
Proton NMR Spectrum - Integrations. 1H NMR Spectrum of - Ethyl Bromide, Acetaldehyde,
1,1,2-tribromo Ethane, Ethyl Acetate and Acetophenone.
Mass Spectrometry : Electron Impact Mass : Basic Principle, Nitrogen Rule, Types of Ions :
Molecular Ion and Fragment Ions. Representation of Mass Spectrum, Types of Peaks
(Molecular Ion Peak, Base Peak and Isotopic Ion Peaks). Determination of Molecular
Formula. Mass Spectrum of Ethyl Chloride, Ethyl Bromide and Acetophenone.
Unit–iii: Separation techniqUeS-i
Solvent Extraction : Principle, Methods of Extraction: Batch Extraction, Continuous
Extraction and Counter Current Extraction. Application - Determination of Iron (III).
Chromatography : Classification of Chromatographic Methods, Principles of Differential
Migration, Adsorption Phenomenon, Nature of Adsorbents, Solvent Systems.
Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) : Advantages, Preparation of Plates, Solid Phase and
Mobile Phase used in TLC, Eluotropic Series, Development of the Chromatogram, Detection
of the Spots, Visualizing Agents, Factors Effecting Rf Values and Applications of TLC.
Paper Chromatography : Principle, Choice of Paper and Solvent Systems, Development
of Chromatogram - Ascending, Descending, Radial and Two Dimensional Chromatography,
Detection of Spots and Applications of Paper Chromatography.
Unit–iv: Separation techniqUeS-ii
Column Chromatography : Principle, Types of Stationary Phases, Column Packing - Wet
Packing Technique, Dry Packing Technique. Selection Criteria of Mobile Phase Solvents
for Eluting Polar, Non-polar Compounds and its Applications
Ion Exchange Chromatography : Principle, Cation and Anion Exchange Resins, its
Application in Separation of Ions, De-ionised Water.
Gas Chromatography : Principle, Theory and Instrumentation (Block Diagram), Types of
Stationary Phases and Carrier Gases (Mobile Phase), Applications of GC
High Performance Liquid Chromatography : Principle, Theory and Instrumentation,
Stationary Phases and Mobile Phases. Applications of HPLC, Analysis of Paracetamol.
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